1. Installation Instructions
  2. *************************
  3. Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005,
  4. 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  5. Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
  6. are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
  7. notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
  8. without warranty of any kind.
  9. Basic Installation
  10. ==================
  11. Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
  12. configure, build, and install this package. The following
  13. more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
  14. instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
  15. `INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
  16. below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
  17. necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
  18. in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
  19. The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
  20. various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
  21. those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
  22. It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
  23. definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
  24. you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
  25. file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
  26. debugging `configure').
  27. It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
  28. and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
  29. the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is
  30. disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
  31. cache files.
  32. If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
  33. to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
  34. diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
  35. be considered for the next release. If you are using the cache, and at
  36. some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
  37. may remove or edit it.
  38. The file `' (or `') is used to create
  39. `configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You need `' if
  40. you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
  41. of `autoconf'.
  42. The simplest way to compile this package is:
  43. 1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
  44. `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
  45. Running `configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
  46. some messages telling which features it is checking for.
  47. 2. Type `make' to compile the package.
  48. 3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
  49. the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
  50. 4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
  51. documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
  52. recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
  53. user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
  54. privileges.
  55. 5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
  56. this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
  57. This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
  58. regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
  59. root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
  60. correctly.
  61. 6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
  62. source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
  63. files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
  64. a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
  65. also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
  66. for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
  67. all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
  68. with the distribution.
  69. 7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
  70. files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
  71. uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
  72. GNU Coding Standards.
  73. 8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
  74. distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
  75. targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
  76. This target is generally not run by end users.
  77. Compilers and Options
  78. =====================
  79. Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
  80. the `configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help'
  81. for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
  82. You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
  83. by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here
  84. is an example:
  85. ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
  86. *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
  87. Compiling For Multiple Architectures
  88. ====================================
  89. You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
  90. same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
  91. own directory. To do this, you can use GNU `make'. `cd' to the
  92. directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
  93. the `configure' script. `configure' automatically checks for the
  94. source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'. This
  95. is known as a "VPATH" build.
  96. With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
  97. architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
  98. installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
  99. reconfiguring for another architecture.
  100. On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
  101. executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
  102. "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
  103. compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
  104. this:
  105. ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  106. CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  107. CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
  108. This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
  109. may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
  110. using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
  111. Installation Names
  112. ==================
  113. By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
  114. `/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc. You
  115. can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
  116. `configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
  117. absolute file name.
  118. You can specify separate installation prefixes for
  119. architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
  120. pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
  121. PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
  122. Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
  123. In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
  124. options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
  125. kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
  126. you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the
  127. default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
  128. specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
  129. specifications that were not explicitly provided.
  130. The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
  131. correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
  132. both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
  133. `make install' command line to change installation locations without
  134. having to reconfigure or recompile.
  135. The first method involves providing an override variable for each
  136. affected directory. For example, `make install
  137. prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
  138. directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
  139. `${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during `configure',
  140. but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
  141. time for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of
  142. makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
  143. the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
  144. However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
  145. shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
  146. method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
  147. The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable. For
  148. example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
  149. `/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
  150. `DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
  151. does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
  152. it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
  153. when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
  154. at `configure' time.
  155. Optional Features
  156. =================
  157. If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
  158. with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
  159. option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
  160. Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
  161. `configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
  162. They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
  163. is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System). The
  164. `README' should mention any `--enable-' and `--with-' options that the
  165. package recognizes.
  166. For packages that use the X Window System, `configure' can usually
  167. find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
  168. you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
  169. `--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
  170. Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
  171. execution of `make' will be. For these packages, running `./configure
  172. --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
  173. overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
  174. --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
  175. overridden with `make V=0'.
  176. Particular systems
  177. ==================
  178. On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU
  179. CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
  180. order to use an ANSI C compiler:
  181. ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
  182. and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
  183. On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
  184. parse its `<wchar.h>' header file. The option `-nodtk' can be used as
  185. a workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
  186. to try
  187. ./configure CC="cc"
  188. and if that doesn't work, try
  189. ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
  190. On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'. This
  191. directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
  192. these programs are available in `/usr/bin'. So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
  193. in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
  194. On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
  195. not `/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
  196. ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
  197. Specifying the System Type
  198. ==========================
  199. There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
  200. automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
  201. will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
  202. _same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
  203. a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
  204. `--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
  205. type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
  207. where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
  208. OS
  209. KERNEL-OS
  210. See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
  211. `config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
  212. need to know the machine type.
  213. If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
  214. use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
  215. produce code for.
  216. If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
  217. platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
  218. "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
  219. eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
  220. Sharing Defaults
  221. ================
  222. If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
  223. you can create a site shell script called `' that gives
  224. default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
  225. `configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/' if it exists, then
  226. `PREFIX/etc/' if it exists. Or, you can set the
  227. `CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
  228. A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
  229. Defining Variables
  230. ==================
  231. Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
  232. environment passed to `configure'. However, some packages may run
  233. configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
  234. variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
  235. them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'. For example:
  236. ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
  237. causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
  238. overridden in the site shell script).
  239. Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
  240. an Autoconf bug. Until the bug is fixed you can use this workaround:
  241. CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash /bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
  242. `configure' Invocation
  243. ======================
  244. `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
  245. operates.
  246. `--help'
  247. `-h'
  248. Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
  249. `--help=short'
  250. `--help=recursive'
  251. Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
  252. `configure', and exit. The `short' variant lists options used
  253. only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
  254. also present in any nested packages.
  255. `--version'
  256. `-V'
  257. Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
  258. script, and exit.
  259. `--cache-file=FILE'
  260. Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
  261. traditionally `config.cache'. FILE defaults to `/dev/null' to
  262. disable caching.
  263. `--config-cache'
  264. `-C'
  265. Alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'.
  266. `--quiet'
  267. `--silent'
  268. `-q'
  269. Do not print messages saying which checks are being made. To
  270. suppress all normal output, redirect it to `/dev/null' (any error
  271. messages will still be shown).
  272. `--srcdir=DIR'
  273. Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
  274. `configure' can determine that directory automatically.
  275. `--prefix=DIR'
  276. Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names::
  277. for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
  278. the installation locations.
  279. `--no-create'
  280. `-n'
  281. Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
  282. files.
  283. `configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
  284. `configure --help' for more details.