1. Installation Instructions
  2. *************************
  3. Copyright (C) 1994-1996, 1999-2002, 2004-2017, 2020-2021 Free
  4. Software Foundation, Inc.
  5. Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
  6. are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
  7. notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
  8. without warranty of any kind.
  9. Basic Installation
  10. ==================
  11. Briefly, the shell command './configure && make && make install'
  12. should configure, build, and install this package. The following
  13. more-detailed instructions are generic; see the 'README' file for
  14. instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
  15. 'INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
  16. below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
  17. necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
  18. in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
  19. The 'configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
  20. various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
  21. those values to create a 'Makefile' in each directory of the package.
  22. It may also create one or more '.h' files containing system-dependent
  23. definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script 'config.status' that
  24. you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
  25. file 'config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
  26. debugging 'configure').
  27. It can also use an optional file (typically called 'config.cache' and
  28. enabled with '--cache-file=config.cache' or simply '-C') that saves the
  29. results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is disabled by
  30. default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale cache files.
  31. If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
  32. to figure out how 'configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
  33. diffs or instructions to the address given in the 'README' so they can
  34. be considered for the next release. If you are using the cache, and at
  35. some point 'config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
  36. may remove or edit it.
  37. The file '' (or '') is used to create
  38. 'configure' by a program called 'autoconf'. You need '' if
  39. you want to change it or regenerate 'configure' using a newer version of
  40. 'autoconf'.
  41. The simplest way to compile this package is:
  42. 1. 'cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
  43. './configure' to configure the package for your system.
  44. Running 'configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
  45. some messages telling which features it is checking for.
  46. 2. Type 'make' to compile the package.
  47. 3. Optionally, type 'make check' to run any self-tests that come with
  48. the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
  49. 4. Type 'make install' to install the programs and any data files and
  50. documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
  51. recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
  52. user, and only the 'make install' phase executed with root
  53. privileges.
  54. 5. Optionally, type 'make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
  55. this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
  56. This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
  57. regular user, particularly if the prior 'make install' required
  58. root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
  59. correctly.
  60. 6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
  61. source code directory by typing 'make clean'. To also remove the
  62. files that 'configure' created (so you can compile the package for
  63. a different kind of computer), type 'make distclean'. There is
  64. also a 'make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
  65. for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
  66. all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
  67. with the distribution.
  68. 7. Often, you can also type 'make uninstall' to remove the installed
  69. files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
  70. uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
  71. GNU Coding Standards.
  72. 8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide 'make
  73. distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
  74. targets like 'make install' and 'make uninstall' work correctly.
  75. This target is generally not run by end users.
  76. Compilers and Options
  77. =====================
  78. Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
  79. the 'configure' script does not know about. Run './configure --help'
  80. for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
  81. You can give 'configure' initial values for configuration parameters
  82. by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here is
  83. an example:
  84. ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
  85. *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
  86. Compiling For Multiple Architectures
  87. ====================================
  88. You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
  89. same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
  90. own directory. To do this, you can use GNU 'make'. 'cd' to the
  91. directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
  92. the 'configure' script. 'configure' automatically checks for the source
  93. code in the directory that 'configure' is in and in '..'. This is known
  94. as a "VPATH" build.
  95. With a non-GNU 'make', it is safer to compile the package for one
  96. architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
  97. installed the package for one architecture, use 'make distclean' before
  98. reconfiguring for another architecture.
  99. On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
  100. executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
  101. "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple '-arch' options to the
  102. compiler but only a single '-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
  103. this:
  104. ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  105. CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  106. CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
  107. This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
  108. may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
  109. using the 'lipo' tool if you have problems.
  110. Installation Names
  111. ==================
  112. By default, 'make install' installs the package's commands under
  113. '/usr/local/bin', include files under '/usr/local/include', etc. You
  114. can specify an installation prefix other than '/usr/local' by giving
  115. 'configure' the option '--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
  116. absolute file name.
  117. You can specify separate installation prefixes for
  118. architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
  119. pass the option '--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to 'configure', the package uses
  120. PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
  121. Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
  122. In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
  123. options like '--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
  124. kinds of files. Run 'configure --help' for a list of the directories
  125. you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the default
  126. for these options is expressed in terms of '${prefix}', so that
  127. specifying just '--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
  128. specifications that were not explicitly provided.
  129. The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
  130. correct locations to 'configure'; however, many packages provide one or
  131. both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
  132. 'make install' command line to change installation locations without
  133. having to reconfigure or recompile.
  134. The first method involves providing an override variable for each
  135. affected directory. For example, 'make install
  136. prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
  137. directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
  138. '${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during 'configure',
  139. but not in terms of '${prefix}', must each be overridden at install time
  140. for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of makefile
  141. variable overrides for each directory variable is required by the GNU
  142. Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation. However, some
  143. platforms have known limitations with the semantics of shared libraries
  144. that end up requiring recompilation when using this method, particularly
  145. noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
  146. The second method involves providing the 'DESTDIR' variable. For
  147. example, 'make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
  148. '/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
  149. 'DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
  150. does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
  151. it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
  152. when some directory options were not specified in terms of '${prefix}'
  153. at 'configure' time.
  154. Optional Features
  155. =================
  156. If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
  157. with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving 'configure' the
  158. option '--program-prefix=PREFIX' or '--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
  159. Some packages pay attention to '--enable-FEATURE' options to
  160. 'configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
  161. They may also pay attention to '--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
  162. is something like 'gnu-as' or 'x' (for the X Window System). The
  163. 'README' should mention any '--enable-' and '--with-' options that the
  164. package recognizes.
  165. For packages that use the X Window System, 'configure' can usually
  166. find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
  167. you can use the 'configure' options '--x-includes=DIR' and
  168. '--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
  169. Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
  170. execution of 'make' will be. For these packages, running './configure
  171. --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
  172. overridden with 'make V=1'; while running './configure
  173. --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
  174. overridden with 'make V=0'.
  175. Particular systems
  176. ==================
  177. On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU CC
  178. is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
  179. order to use an ANSI C compiler:
  180. ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
  181. and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
  182. HP-UX 'make' updates targets which have the same timestamps as their
  183. prerequisites, which makes it generally unusable when shipped generated
  184. files such as 'configure' are involved. Use GNU 'make' instead.
  185. On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
  186. parse its '<wchar.h>' header file. The option '-nodtk' can be used as a
  187. workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended to
  188. try
  189. ./configure CC="cc"
  190. and if that doesn't work, try
  191. ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
  192. On Solaris, don't put '/usr/ucb' early in your 'PATH'. This
  193. directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
  194. these programs are available in '/usr/bin'. So, if you need '/usr/ucb'
  195. in your 'PATH', put it _after_ '/usr/bin'.
  196. On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in '/boot/common',
  197. not '/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
  198. ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
  199. Specifying the System Type
  200. ==========================
  201. There may be some features 'configure' cannot figure out
  202. automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
  203. will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
  204. _same_ architectures, 'configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
  205. a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
  206. '--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
  207. type, such as 'sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
  209. where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
  210. OS
  211. KERNEL-OS
  212. See the file 'config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
  213. 'config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
  214. need to know the machine type.
  215. If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
  216. use the option '--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
  217. produce code for.
  218. If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
  219. platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
  220. "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
  221. eventually be run) with '--host=TYPE'.
  222. Sharing Defaults
  223. ================
  224. If you want to set default values for 'configure' scripts to share,
  225. you can create a site shell script called '' that gives
  226. default values for variables like 'CC', 'cache_file', and 'prefix'.
  227. 'configure' looks for 'PREFIX/share/' if it exists, then
  228. 'PREFIX/etc/' if it exists. Or, you can set the
  229. 'CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
  230. A warning: not all 'configure' scripts look for a site script.
  231. Defining Variables
  232. ==================
  233. Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
  234. environment passed to 'configure'. However, some packages may run
  235. configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
  236. variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
  237. them in the 'configure' command line, using 'VAR=value'. For example:
  238. ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
  239. causes the specified 'gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
  240. overridden in the site shell script).
  241. Unfortunately, this technique does not work for 'CONFIG_SHELL' due to an
  242. Autoconf limitation. Until the limitation is lifted, you can use this
  243. workaround:
  244. CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
  245. 'configure' Invocation
  246. ======================
  247. 'configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
  248. operates.
  249. '--help'
  250. '-h'
  251. Print a summary of all of the options to 'configure', and exit.
  252. '--help=short'
  253. '--help=recursive'
  254. Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
  255. 'configure', and exit. The 'short' variant lists options used only
  256. in the top level, while the 'recursive' variant lists options also
  257. present in any nested packages.
  258. '--version'
  259. '-V'
  260. Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the 'configure'
  261. script, and exit.
  262. '--cache-file=FILE'
  263. Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
  264. traditionally 'config.cache'. FILE defaults to '/dev/null' to
  265. disable caching.
  266. '--config-cache'
  267. '-C'
  268. Alias for '--cache-file=config.cache'.
  269. '--quiet'
  270. '--silent'
  271. '-q'
  272. Do not print messages saying which checks are being made. To
  273. suppress all normal output, redirect it to '/dev/null' (any error
  274. messages will still be shown).
  275. '--srcdir=DIR'
  276. Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
  277. 'configure' can determine that directory automatically.
  278. '--prefix=DIR'
  279. Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names:: for
  280. more details, including other options available for fine-tuning the
  281. installation locations.
  282. '--no-create'
  283. '-n'
  284. Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
  285. files.
  286. 'configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
  287. 'configure --help' for more details.